Day 1 :
University of Babylon, Iraq
Jaleel Kareem Ahmed has expertise in evaluation in iron and steel industry. He has registered 3 patents in USA, UK and Iraq about using water in iron industry and wax for storage and transportation direct reduced iron (DRI) and using wax for carburizing of steel. In 2013, he was awarded Scientific Medal from Iraqi Government. He has been serving as a Reviewer of Journal of Advances in Polymer Technology, Thomson Reuters.
Anthocyanin from red beet juice, cherry and red rose which is extracted mechanically is water soluble due to the many hydroxyl groups and glucose molecule which is carried on the anthocyanin (position 3 on it). This juice is slightly sweet due to the free sugar present. The juice is very slightly acidic due to its exchangeable proton (Transmembrane proton with radius=1.5×10-6 nm). The concentration of the proton=10-6.4 g-proton/L, pP=-log [P]=-log 10-6.4=6.4. In spite of very low concentration of the exchangeable proton in the juice, it is very active to attack metal ions as soon as it comes in contact with it, as well as hetero atoms (like O, N, S) in organic molecules, such process called protonation (exothermic process) in which this process pull the abnormal high energy molecules downhill and stabilize it. Proton is condensed in aqueous solution called hydrated proton PH2O which moves to the whole human body and when become near high energy molecule with hetero atom leaving the water and attacks that molecule similar to the aircraft carrier when becomes near to the target the air craft leaves the carrier and attacks the target. In such process, proton saves the energy for the attack. Results show that solid anthocyanin from the evaporation of juice go into condensation polymerization around 80 °C with liberation of water, as well as boiling concentrated juice (home-made) resulted in polymerization with very fine solid particles which reduce the ability of the exchangeable proton to precipitate heavy metal ions. Ultra violet visible spectrum shows great difference between normal and filtered boiled juice. Thus it prefers to extract the juice mechanically not thermally and no any additional material added to the juice. Spectroscopic tests in addition to the visual one show that there is an interaction between anthocyanin and uric acid and urea in blood.
Agricultural Research System, Pakistan
Muhammad Usman is the Former Director General of Agricultural Research System, Government of Pakistan, retired from service after a spotless career of about 35 years with senior level experience on research and development of integrated agricultural industries with regard to livestock and dairy development, poultry, aquaculture and apiculture, sustainable agricultural production system, fruits and vegetable, seed production, bioenergy and other cash crops. He has established Prominent Agro Based Industries SDN BHD in Malaysia and Foundation for Rural Development in Pakistan, with primarily aims to work on integrated agricultural project for rural development through improvement in agriculture for rehabilitation of affected area.
Biochemistry is the division of science that explores the chemical processes within and related to living organisms, it is a laboratory based science that brings together biology and chemistry. By using chemical information and procedures, biochemists can understand and solve biological problems. Biochemistry plays and important in nutrition and health. Similarly, biochemistry in general deals with body substance like enzymes, carbohydrates, amino acids, fats, proteins, hormones, DNA, RNA, pigments, etc. It is used in clinical diagnosis, manufacturing of various biological products, treatment of diseases, in nutrition, agriculture, etc. Biochemistry is the study of biological processes that occur in cells and organisms. Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids are the most common biological molecules studied by biochemists. Biochemistry also encompasses the science of molecular biology. This includes immunochemistry, neurochemistry and bioinorganic, bioorganic and biophysical chemistry. Biochemistry is applied in various areas, including medicine, dentistry, industry, and agriculture and food science. Sustainability means the ability or capacity of something to be maintained or sustain itself. If any activity is said to be sustainable, it should be able to continue forever. In the light of the above study it is reported that biochemistry absorbing millions of technical and nontechnical people, create employment; generate income which consequently reduced poverty and hunger in the world. Keeping in view the importance of the biochemistry on sustainable way, it is proposed to commercialize all the field of the biochemistry in the world as it is the most powerful and sustainable tool for reducing global poverty and hunger in the world.
- Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Biochemistry | Nutritional Biochemistry | Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Medical Biochemistry
Jaleel K Ahmed
University of Babylon, Iraq
Ahmadi Hospital, Kuwait
Ali Saad is currently a Specialist of Anesthesia and Intensive Care Unit, working in field for 12 years’ with continuous medical education programs, courses with weekly presentations.
Statement of the Problem: Study of ketamine postoperative for pediatrics as analgesics in kids group to achieve good analgesia, decrease opioid consumption postoperative. Target patients in case study are pediatrics above 1-year age (6 months to 6 years of age).
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: 1-2 mg/kg of ketamine was given IM postoperative in 42 pediatric cases and then assess patient comfort and pain severity in recovery room for 30 minutes postoperative up to 12 hours in ward.
Findings: Achieve good smooth painless recovery and decreasing opioid consumption, arousable responding to commands child with maintained spontaneous breathing causing analgesia up to 12 hours postoperative in 30 of 42 cases. The remaining 12 needed postoperative analgesics after 6 hours.
Conclusion & Significance: Ketamine can be given 1 mg/kg IM after finishing surgery before extubation; especially if other analgesics failed to relieve pain with full close observation and vital signs monitoring of child in recovery room for 30 minutes postoperative then assess child pain, vitals and conscious level before shifting to ward.
Mutaz Sabah Ahmeid has completed his PhD in Clinical Biochemistry from Baghdad University in 2011 and has obtained Higher Diploma in Assisted Reproductive Technique in 2013. He is an Assistant Professor in College of Medicine in Tikrit University and had many research in infertility field.
Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has a diverse range of the causes that are not entirely understood, but there is evidence that it is largely a genetic disease. The most common immediate symptoms are anovulation, excess androgenic hormones and the insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is associated with obesity, type-2 diabetes and high cholesterol level. The severity of PCOS symptoms appears to be largely determined by factors such as obesity. Reducing insulin resistance by improving insulin sensitivity through a medication such as metformin seems to show effectiveness. The dyslipidemia may occur independently of obesity; however there is synergistic delicious effect of obesity and insulin resistance in PCOS analogues to that seen in type-2 diabetes. Serum levels of C-reactive protein avascular inflammatory marker, may predict the development of cardiovascular disease and within the last years; homocystein taken its place among other major risk factors such as cholesterol and obesity.
Aim: To assess the level of homocystein, lipid profile and C-reactive protein in PCOS patients before and after three months of treatment with metformin.
Method: This study including 61 PCOS patients were recruited from the gynecological out patient's clinic of Kirkuk General Hospital from January to September 2016. Thirty (30) patients from them received metformin as only treatment for three months.
Results: There was a significant decrease in serum level of total cholesterol, LDL and CRP, but non-significant change in the serum homocystein, TG, HDL and VLDL after treatment with metformin.
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India
Ankita Singh is currently pursuing PhD from Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India. Her research interests centers around the development of protein structural database for malarial parasites and advancing the quality assessment methodologies. She has her expertise in scoring and assessing the predicted protein tertiary structures with different parameters to select best predicted model.
Statement of the Problem: Protein structure quality assessment is among the most important challenges in the field of structural biology. Recent methodological advancements in protein structure prediction approaches have created an immediate necessity for highly efficient quality assessment methods for discriminating good model structures. Better quality predicted protein structures may help in further biological function assignment and in structure based drug discovery.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: The ProTSAV+ meta-server integrates 11 individual approaches of quality assessment and provides the user with a single quality score in case of individual model structure and ranking in case of multiple decoy structures. The ProTSAV+ performs weight, age based combination of some of the widely used and thoroughly validated freely/on request available tools. These tools mainly embed various structural and energetic features individually or in combination like accessible surface area, non-covalent interactions, residues based contact potentials, etc.
Findings: The specificity and sensitivity of meta-server is 88% and 91%, respectively for good quality model structures and the same goes to 100% and 98%, respectively for experimental structures. The updated version of the meta-server is fielded in recently concluded CASP12 protein structure prediction experiment under ‘QA category’ and performed among some of the leading QA participants. For instance, the meta-server ranked among top 20 participants in 22 targets out of 40 publically released target.
Conclusion & Significance: The server overcomes the limitations of any single method and is seen to be robust in helping in improved quality assessment.
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India
Rahul Kaushik has been working in the field of protein structure prediction as a Doctoral student for last five years and his thrust area of research work mainly focuses on development of new algorithms for improvement in protein structure prediction.
Statement of the Problem: Protein folding has been a challenge for decades to structural biologists and bio-informaticians. Some of the best methods available are based on hybrid approaches that combine ab initio conformational sampling with comparative modeling. The success of these methods is of course reliant upon template selection and alignment especially for proteins in difficult zone of structural modelability. Addressing this issue, we propose here, NCL Align, a new chemical logic based template selection and alignment algorithm.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: The NCL Align algorithm assimilates amino acid conservative substitution scores with their secondary structural propensities, physicochemical features and structural properties for template selection and alignment. The proposed algorithm is validated on 11716 unique proteins clustered at 40% sequence identity taken from PDB and the accuracies in tertiary structure generation are compared with the accuracies attained by some of the most commonly used and thoroughly validated standalone tools for template selection and alignment.
Findings: NCL Align outperformed Modeller, PSIBLAST, pGenThreader and HH-Suite in 9393, 9050, 7834 and 8084 cases in terms of GDT score with an average gain of 22.7, 31.7, 13.5 and 18.5, respectively. Also, NCL Align demonstrated as best in predicting protein tertiary structures under 3Å and 5Å RMSD and beyond 50 GDT score.
Conclusion & Significance: The NCL Align directed template selection and alignment has shown a significant improvement over some of the best and commonly used conventional methods in terms of improved structure prediction. The rapid scanning via NCL Align (4-5 minutes for 250 amino acid residue protein sequence) for template selection and alignment with considerable accuracy can prove to be an efficient supplement to compute intensive and time consuming ab initio methodologies. Improved protein structure prediction via NCL Align may prove very helpful in protein function annotations and in structure based drug development research.
Aligarh Muslim University, India
Shireen Lamay is currently pursuing her Doctorate degree as a Research Scholar from Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Aligarh Muslim University, India. She has completed her Masters and graduation in Biochemistry. She has her expertise in utilizing natural antioxidants/polyphenols in combating cardiac disorders. Her work is specifically focused on employing wide spectrum of such antioxidants like resveratrol from grapes, etc. which will be beneficial for elucidating the working action of safe and economical natural compounds that may be used as an adjunct in the management of MI.
It has been established that in cardiac disorders, there exists a synergistic correlation between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and TNF-alpha. We probed a systematic approach to the molecular basis of cardio protective effect of natural antioxidants like resveratrol in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, which could offer a novel therapeutic opportunity against oxidative tissue damage. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC’s) were isolated from blood of cardiac patients (n=20-30 having prior consent) by density gradient method and its monocytes (MN’s) were employed in culture studies (with and without resveratrol). The 24 hour cultures were subjected to evaluation of interleukins IL-1 and IL-6 as well as oxidative stress marker like MDA and Glutathione. The results were that the patient’s samples exhibited a remarkably suppressed glutathione levels (18.83 pg/ml; n=20; p<0.001) when compared to samples of healthy subjects (67.11 pg/ml; n=6; p<0.001); augmented levels of MDA were recorded in patient’s sample (34.23 nmol/ml; n=20; p<0.001) in comparison to healthy controls (5.12 nmol/ml; n=6; p<0.001). These observations are indicative that the defense system for antioxidants was compromised markedly in patients with myocardial infarction. A remarkable degree of amelioration in glutathione levels (59.35 pg/ml; n=20; p<0.001) coupled with an appreciable suppression in MDA levels (9.33 nmol/ml; n=20; p<0.001) were recorded in cultures treated with 20 ug/ml resveratrol. Furthermore, untreated patients cells exhibited augmented expressions of IL-1 (49.16 pg/ml; n=20; p<0.001) and IL-6 (53.11 pg/ml; n=20; p<0.001). Co-culturing with resveratrol exhibited suppression in IL-1 (12.32 pg/ml; n=20; p<0.001) and IL-6 (9.12 pg/ml; n=20; p<0.001). The IL-1 and IL-6 levels in healthy control cells (n=6) were recorded as 3.22 pg/ml and 4.09 pg/ml, respectively (p<0.001). It can be concluded that resveratrol, a potent polyphenol from grape sand also a natural antioxidant, ameliorated glutathione levels simultaneously and in turn, appreciably regulated IL-1 and IL-6 expressions in cell culture studies. Thus, in-depth studies are required to probe at the molecular level that whether resveratrol is having such potential or not.
Aarti Sukanta Mondal has completed his PhD in 2006 from Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Bareilly and Postdoctoral studies from Laval University, Canada in 2010. He is working as a Principal Scientist at NIANP, Bangalore. He has been working in the field of molecular endocrinology, reproductive genomics and stress physiology for last 20 years. He has published over 55 papers in various national and international journals of repute.
Statement of the Problem: Early embryonic loss is one of the major factors affecting reproductive efficiency in buffalo. Prostaglandins are mediators of various reproductive events viz., luteolysis, implantation and parturition in farm animals. LPS and TNFα play a crucial role in regulation of prostaglandin production by endometrial cells by modulating the growth pattern of epithelial and stromal cells. The objective of the study was to test the effect of LPS and TNFα on in vitro growth pattern of endometrial epithelial and stromal cells.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Endometrial epithelial cells were isolated by infusing HBSS containing 0.3% trypsin into mid luteal uterine horn and were cultured in RPMI 1640 medium at 38.5 oC in presence of 5% CO2 for 7 days. For isolation of stromal cells, endometrial tissues were digested at 37 oC for 1 hour in RPMI-1640 medium containing collagenase. The contaminating epithelial cells were eliminated by treatment with 0.25% trypsin solution after 16 hours of culture and the remaining cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 medium at 38.5 oC in presence of 5% CO2 for 7 days. After reaching the confluency, the endometrial epithelial and stromal cells were treated with increasing doses of LPS (1, 10,100, 1000, 104, 105 ng) and TNFa (0.005, 0.05, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 nM) for 24 hour.
Findings: In primary culture, epithelial cells exhibited cuboidal or columnar morphologies and showed contact inhibition at the stage of confluence. In primary culture, stromal cells exhibited flat, fibroblastic and spindle shaped and showed streaming at the stage of confluence. The protein content of endometrial epithelial cells was lowest in control group which increased a maximum level at 105 ng LPS in endometrial epithelial cells. In stromal cells, protein content increased to reach a maximum level at 100 ng LPS which then declined to lowest level at 105 ng LPS. Protein concentration was found maximum in the control group of endometrial epithelial cells but lowest level was observed at 2.5 nM TNF-a. In stromal cells, protein content was lowest at 0.005 nM TNF-a which then increased to a nadir at 1 nM dose of TNF-a. The concentration of protein was highest in control group and lowest level was at 2.5 nM TNF-a.
Conclusion & Significance: It can be concluded that the growth pattern of endometrial epithelial and stromal cells was modulated by LPS and TNF-a in vitro.
Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Nigeria
Ogundiran Mathew Akinloye is currently working in Department of Pure and Applied Biology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology in Nigeria.
Despite the existence of environmental legislations in Nigeria, aquatic environment has remained the sewer for wastes not minding its implications on the resident resources. Heavy metals pollution has become a worldwide concern and this may be due to their ability to bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms which is a source of livelihood for human populations. Therefore, this work aimed at assessing heavy metal accumulation in Clarias buthupogon and Heterobranchus longifilis in Asa River, Nigeria. After reconnaissance survey, fish samples were collected using hooks, traps and cast nets of various sizes twice monthly between April, 2011 and March, 2013 and were identified immediately. The samples were processed and heavy metal concentrations were determined in the gill, liver and muscle using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Different metals were analyzed in the gill, liver and muscle of the sampled fish species and the data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using the T-test statistical package to determine the level of difference between means. The results (mg kg-1, dry weight) showed different levels of the analyzed metals in the two fish species. The order of heavy metals accumulation in the two fish species are gills>liver>muscle and the levels of heavy metals bioaccumulation varied significantly (p<0.05) among season, sample locations, fish species and fish organs. All metals analyzed vary significantly in the two fish species examined, seasons and across sampling sites. The results suggest that Asa River has high pollution loads of these heavy metals in fishes due to an indiscriminate discharge of effluents in the river and could pose a health hazards to humans. Consequently, close monitoring of heavy metal loads in Asa River is recommended with a view of minimizing the risks to health of the population that depend on the river for their water and fish supply.